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Ayurvedic Glossary


Abhyanga -An ayurvedic oil massage practiced by two medics who massage to let go the warm oil into the tissues of the entire body. This helps loosen and facilitate the removal of accumulated ama (toxins) and the doshas (vata, pitta and kapha) from the body.

Acara - Good conduct, an established rule of conduct.

Agada tantra - Toxicology, a branch of Ayurveda dealing with poisons.

Agantuka - External or a stranger.

Ahamkara - Conception of one's individuality, egoism, pride or haughtiness.

Ajasrika - Activities that promote positive health.

Ajirna - Indigestion, weak digestion.

Akasa - Free open space, ether, sky or atmosphere.

Akriti - Physical appearance or external shape.

Alabu - A vessel made of dried gourd.

Alocaka (Pitta) - A type of Pitta governing vision, causing to see.

Amala (Amalaki) - An Ayurvedic herb, Emblica officinalis (Emblica myrobalan)

Amavata - A disease caused by ama and vata, comparable to arthritis in modern medicine.

Amla - Sour taste.

Anjana - Black pigment applied in eyes and eyelashes.

Anna-vaha srotas - The channels transporting grains or food, the digestive system, alimentary canal.

Anupana - A fluid vehicle for medicine; drink taken with or after medicine, drink after eating.

Anurasa - A secondary flavor (as a little sweetness in sour fruit), a subordinate feeling.

Anuvasana (Basti) - Enema given with an oily substance.

Apa - The element water or water.

Apana - One of the five types of vata, which goes downward and is responsible for expulsion of faces, flatus, urine, menstrual blood etc.

Aparadha - Offence, sin, wrong action or misuse.

Apara-ojas - One of the less important of two types of vital fluid (ojas) present in the body, inferior, lower.

Ardhavabhedaka - A kind of migraine affecting half of the head or skull.

Arsha - Saintly, pious, and sacred.

Asana - Posture, seat or position.

Asatmendriyartha samyoga - Improper contact of senses with their objects.

Asatmya - Unwholesome, bad, improper.

Astanga Hrdya - An ancient Ayurvedic text written by Vagabhatta.

Adaptogens - Herbs that improve body's ability to adapt to stress, including infection, mental stresses and fatigue. It supports the adrenal glands and the pituitary glands and changes the threshold of resistance to damage.

Agni - Agni is the form of fire and heat that is the basis of the digestive system and the process of release of energy. The term includes the body heat, body temperature, sight, the digestive fire; its function is transformation, absorption, elimination and discrimination is agni.

Ahara rasa - It is the nutrient substance that is acted upon in the digestive tract by the enzymes or the bile juice.

Akasha - It is the free space or void; also related to the property of sound and is one of the aggregate elemental processes.

Alternatives - Alternatives alter existing nutritive and excretory processes gradually restore normal health; cleanses and purifies the blood. Alternatives improve the tissue ability to metabolize and eliminate waste to restore the proper function of the body. Most of the alternative herbs that have their initial action on the liver or kidneys can be considered.

Alochaka - It is one of the five varieties of pitta and helps in catching the image of external objects.

Ama - It is the toxins that enter the blood stream and are circulated in the whole body. Toxins or ama are produced in the body by the raw, undigested food products that become fetid.
Retention of toxins in the blood results in toxemia. Almost every disease is a result of toxicity ormits crisis. Toxins are vital for prana (vital life energy), ojas (immunity), and tejas (cell metabolic energy).

Anodynes - They are the herbs that reduce the sensitivity of the nerves and reduce. They have a similar reaction as that of the analgesics.

Antihydrotics - It is the herbs that decrease sweating.

Anthelminthics - This herb destroys or expels the parasitic worms from the digestive system.

Anticoagulant - They are herbs that resist the coagulation in the affected area and helps in massage also.

Anti-inflammatory - It restrains inflammation and counteracts to its effects.

Antioxidants - These medicines absorb or attach themselves to the oxygen free radicals that are highly receptive to compounds that attack the cell membranes, enzymes etc.

Antispasmodic - These medicines help preventing and relieving spasm.

Apana - This medicine acts in the downward direction of the body and regulates exhalation and excretion.

Aphrodisiac - It acts as a stimulant and when consumed heightens senses and stimulates sexual drive.

Appetizer - The medicine is a good stimulant and increase appetite by stimulating it.

Artha - It relates to meaning, the final essence of every thought, it is an object of pursuit, which is desired and desirable and satisfies the acquisitive tendency in every individual.

Asthi - It is one of the seven components and the bone tissues that supports the body by giving it protection, shape, nourishment and longevity.

Astringent - This medicine has a binding effect as it checks hemorrhages and secretions.

Atman - Atman means the true self, which is the cause of consciousness and all functions by the mind.

Atreya - Atreya is the author of Charaka Samhita.

Avalambaka - It is located in the heart and the sacrum and has the vital function of nourishing them both, lubricating and protecting the heart and support the sacrum.

Avyakta - It refers to indistinct, not evident and inarticulate.

Ayurveda - Constituted of two words, Ayur meaning life and Veda meaning knowledge, ayurveda means the knowledge of life. Another accurate translation of ayurveda is 'the knowledge of longevity. The roots of ayurveda rest in the ancient Indian culture. Ayurveda can be thoroughly understood by getting woven up in the fabric of nature. Ayurveda encompasses the secrets of why Man needs to cooperate with Nature completely in order to insure his well being.


Bala -This is a Sanskrit word which means strength.

Balya - It is an energizer that gives strength to the body.

Bheda - Division, variety and distinction.

Bhrajaka (Pitta) - A type of Pitta that gives color or shining to the skin.

Bhutagni - The fire (enzyme) that digests elements (bhuta).

Bhuta-vidya - The science dealing with microorganisms and evil spirits, demonology.

Bhakti - It means devotion for the almighty, faithfulness, worshipful service, homage and loyalty towards the creator.

Basti - It refers to the enema therapy of panchkarma. Basti is the most effective treatment of vata disorder. Vata is a predominant site in the colon. In ayurveda

Bhedaniya - These are the substances that break down fecal matter and help remove it out of the body thus cleaning the colon.

Bhrajaka - Located in the skin of the whole body it is one of the five sub types of pitta And has the function of giving color to the skin and provide luster.

Bodhaka - Located at the root of the tongue and the pharynx it is one of the five subtypes of kapha and enables perception of taste.

Bruhaniya - These are the herbs / natural substances that promote growth.

Buddhi - Refers to the intellect of the living beings, the faculty of wisdom, intelligence and discrimination. There are two types of buddhi namely: pitta buddhi which is sharp and has the capability of discrimination, understanding and appreciation providing a strong remote and recent memory, whereas the other one i.e.: the kapha buddhi is slow, dull and capability to understand little with the capacity to retain it.

Brahmacharya - A state of continence followed during student life, routine followed while studying Vedas.

Brahma-muhurta - Time period (two hours) preceding sunrise.


Carminative - These are the natural ayurvedic herbs that relieve intestinal gas, pain and distention and promote peristalsis.

Caksu - Eye.

Chakhyushya - Natural ayurvedic herbs that are good for eyes and increase the tone of the ciliary muscles.

Chakra - These are the energy Centers in the body that are related to the nerve plexus Center, which govern the body functions.

Charaka - Charaka meaning the wanderer is believed to have spent many years between the wild animals in dense jungles, which enabled him to coin his experiences in the book considered as the bible of ayurveda and called the Charaka Samhita.

Churna - It is a Sanskrit word that means powder.

Consciousness - It refers to the state of being hat is characterized by sensations, emotions, thoughts and awareness within oneself.

Cure - According to the literal meaning the word cure refers to the any diseased person's state of being remedied from his ailment. In ayurveda it is clearly stated that no physician since the beginning of time has been able to cure even the simplest disease, also that all the therapeutic efforts only expedite the processes of nature. It is believed that all diseases are created and since everything that is created exists for sometime and then is destroyed even the disease has some seeds of destruction in itself since its origin.

Cikitsa - Treatment, a therapy to retain balance, practice or science of medicine.

Citraka - Name of an herb, Latin Name: Plumbago zeylanica.

Citraka- mula - The root of the herb citrak (Plumbago zeylanica). Its root is good for increasing the strength of the digestive power.

Citrakadi vati - An Ayurvedic medicine made using citrak as the main ingredient.


Danti mula - Root of the herb "danti" (Latin Name: Baliospermum montanum).

Dhanvantari - According to the Hindu mythology during the churning of the ocean, Vishnu, the physician of gods is believed to be produced with a cup of nectar in his ahnd that represents the true healer in all beings.

Dharana - This Sanskrit word means absorbing information into the memory and reproducing the same.

Dhatu - It is the basic structural and nutritional body factor that supports or nourishes the seven body tissues. These seven tissues of our body includes the rasa, rakta, mamsa, meda, asthi, majja and shukra.

Dipaniya - These are the natural substances that kindle the gastric fire and augment the appetite.

Disease - It is a condition in which one or body parts impair the performance of the vital functions and thus bring the absence of ease. Desire is considered to be the root cause of all diseases. It is said that desires pull the individuals form awareness and affection and this creates imbalances.

Diuretic - It refers to the natural substances that promote the activities of bladder, kidney and increase urination.

Dravya - According to the vaisheshika system of philosophy dravya menas substance or the substratum of properties of the nine eternal substances i.e. the earth, water, fire, air, ether, time, space, self, and mind.

Dushti Duhkha - It is a Sanskrit word that means unhappiness. Vata persons tend toward a duhkha of insecurity, anxiety, fear and loneliness whereas with Pitta constitution individuals tend towards a duhkha involving judgment, nothing to do, being judged, criticism, and lack of acknowledgement. The Kapha duhkha relates to too much physical activity and hardships.


Emetics - It is any substance that eliminates the impurity from the upper part of the body.

Etiology - It is the study of the causes of all diseases. In ayurveda the cause of most of the diseases is due to the overuse, misuse or no use of the five senses.


Ghee - It is the clarified butter made by heating unsalted butter. The ghee may be stored without refrigeration and can be used for most of the preparations that need oil or butter as the basic ingredient..

Ghrta - It ia a sanskrit word meaning ghee.

Guna - All material entities including the mind are the composites of the three gunas, namely the sattva, rajjas and tamas. These are the attributes whose imbalance leads to creation.

Gandharva - Celestial musicians, Heavenly singers.

Goksuru - Puncture vine, Latin name: Tribulus terrestris.

Guduci - Name of an herb: Latin name: Tinospora cordifolia.

Guggulu - A gum from the herb called Indian bedellium, Latin name: Commiphora mukul.


Haritak - Chebulic myrofalan, Latin name: Terminalia chebula.

Harsani - Delightful, pleasant.

Hina yoga - Insufficient, deficient.


Isabgol - An herb commonly used as laxative. Latin Name: Plantago ovata.

Isvara - Means the God or the Lord who is exists forever, free and where the Lordship reaches extremity God exists.


Jiva - It is the empirical self, individual soul or the living being.

Jala - Water, fluid.

Jalauka - Leech.

Jathara - Stomach, belly or abdomen.

Jatharagni - Fire located in stomach, digestive fire, gastric juices, digestive enzymes.

Jati - Jasmine.


Kala - Time period, season.

Kamya - Desirable, amiable, performed for desiring an object.

Kama - It is a sexual desire apart from the other two i.e. the dharma and artha which are mostly desired by men and are the three things from which a yogi, the saint must keep himself away from besides greed, fear, sleep and wrath.

Kanthya - It is the natural substances that improve the hoarseness of voice and are good for throat, speech and voice.

Kapha - It is one of the three doshas i.e. the water humor, the intracellular fluid and the extra cellular fluid that plays significant role in the nutrition and existence of body cells and tissues.

Kama - It refers to the healthy and spiritual use of senses. In ayurveda it is believed that the remedy of the disease is to be found in the the cause itself so the senses have a vital role to play in curing the ailment.

Karna-taila - It is a Sanskrit word meaning oiling the ears.

Keshyam - These are the natural herbs and substances that strengthen hair and the hair root.

Khumbhaka  - In yoga it is a breathing exercise in which the breath is retained in a state of suspense when the mind is relaxed. This exercise re vitalizes the nervous system.

Kichadi - It is meal that is prepared with basmati rice and split mungdal. Sometimes few other legumes and vegetables are also used.

Kledaka kapha - It is one of the five subtypes of kapha. It has the vital function of moistening the food and liquefying the digested contents in the stomach.

Kosha - It refers to the subtle bodies, the sheaths. Human body has five sheaths in all, namely the sheath of knowledge, the sheath of bliss, the sheath of prana, the sheath of mind and the sheath of food.

Kundalini - Meaning the spiritual life force, Shakti kundalini is the residue that remains after material consciousness is dissolved.

Karana - Doing, making, effecting, causing.

Karanja - Indian beech, Latin name: Pongamia pinnata.

Karavira - Indian oleander, Latin name: Nerium indicum.

Karmendriya - An organ of action, the working sense.

Kasaya - Astringent taste or flavor.

Kathina - Hard, firm, stiff, harsh, inflexible, cruel.

Katu - Pungent taste or flavor.

Katuka - An herb, Latin name: Picrorhiza kurroa.

Kaumarabhrtya - The branch of Ayurveda that deals with child- care ( pediatrics ).

Kaya - Body, habitation.

Kay-cikitsa - Treatment of body diseases, Internal Medicine.

Kedari kulya - Irrigation canal analogy, a theory described in Ayurveda to explain the formation of tissues.

Khale kapota - The grain pigeon analogy, a theory described in Ayurveda to explain the formation of tissues.

Kledaka - Wet, moist or phlegm in stomach.

Kriya - Action, practice, applying a remedy.

Kriyakala - Duration of an action.

Ksira Dadhi - A theory described in Ayurveda to explain the formation of tissues.

Kubera - The God of riches and treasure.

Kuti - Cottage or hut.

Kutipravesika - Entering or living in a cottage for the purpose of rejuvenation.


Lavana - Salty taste of flavor.

Lavana-bhaskara - An Ayurvedic powder popularly used to enhance digestion.

Lakshmi - In Hindu mythology Laksmi is considered to be the goddess of fortune and beauty. The consort of Lord Vishnu, she is the created energy of the lord and the divine mother of all universe, the cosmic power of physical abundance, fortune and wealth.

Lekhaniya - They are the natural substances that remove fat from the body by scraping the nonessential adipose tissue. The natural herbs used here are good for cellulite removal also.


Madhyama - In Sanskrit this word means trunk of the body. In ayurvedic terminology it refers to the sound rising form the heart that is felt by the ears and not heard.

Majja - It means the bone marrow. Being one of the seven dhatus it is soft and has the main function of filling up the asthi and nourishing the shukra.

Malas - It means the waste products that are excreted out of the body by some or the other phenomenon. It primarily includes urine, feces and sweat.

Madhura - It means sweet.

Mantram - These are the sacred words or phrases that have a spiritual significance and power. These are of two types: one that is expressed or said by voice and are heard whereas others are non- uttered but are repeated internally.

Marmas - These are the nerve crossings where nerves come to the fascia and relate to the vital human body organs. Marmas are the 365 vital energy points in the body of which 108 are of great importance in ayurveda. They are also called door receptors.

Meda - It is the fat tissue supported by mamsa dhatu. The main function of this one of the seven bodily tissues is to support the human body and lubricate it. Meda's presence in excess can cause obesity and physical weakness.

Moksha - It means liberation, freedom in every aspect and every way of life.

Madakari - That which causes intoxication.

Madanaphala - Emetic nut, Latin name: Randia spinosa.

Madhura - Sweet taste of flavor, pleasant, charming, delightful.

Madya - Any intoxicating drink or substance.

Mahabhuta - Big elements, gross elements, being great.

Mahad tattva - Intellect, great principle.

Majja-vaha srotas - Channels transporting bone marrow.

Malinikarana - The act making impure, staining.

Mamsa-vaha srotas - Channels transporting muscles.

Manas - Mind.

Manda - Slow.

Mandagni - Weakened state of digestive fire.

Medha - Mental power, intelligence, wisdom, and prudence.

Medo-vaha srotas - Channels transporting fatty tissue.

Medya - That which enhances wisdom, mental power and intelligence.

Mithya-yoga - Wrong use, wrong employment.

Matsaya - Fish

Moong ki daal - A variety of green dry beans used for cooking or making sprouts.

Mrudu - Soft, delicate, tender.

Mudra - A sign, position, image commonly practiced in Yoga or religious worship.

Mutra - Urine.

Mutra-vaha srotas - Channels transporting the urine.


Nadi - Pulse, any tubular organ such as vein or artery.

Nasya - Herbal medication of nasal is called nasya. In the medictaion the excess bodily humors that accumulate in the sinus, throat, nose or head is eliminated by the means of the nearest possible opening, the nose.

Naimittika - A cause to achieve a specific result.

Nanatmaja - A result (disease) caused by single factor (dosa).

Neem - Margosa tree, Latin name: Azadirachta indica.

Netra - Eye.

Nidana - Cause of disease and investigating it.

Nidra - Sleep.

Nija - Innate, one's own, internal.

Niruha (Basti) - An enema not of an oily kind.

Niyama - Restrain, regulate, to fix upon, control, check.


Ojas - Vigor, strength and vitality that is the essence of all tissues (dhatus). It means the life sap or the essence of immune system and spiritual energy. Ojas is a protoplasmic substance called the albumin and globulin that is formed during the biosynthesis of bodily tissues and strengthens the tissues.


Pachaka - It is the combination of bile and pancreatic juices located in an area between the stomach and the duodenum. It is one of the five subtypes of pitta and when malfunctions it causes burning sensation, increases appetitie, thirst, insomnia and jaundice,

Pachaniya - These are the natural substances that help in proper digestion.

Pakya - It is a Sanskrit word meaning decoction, boiling, and fermentation.

Panchakarma - According to ayurveda this refers to the five cleansing therapies i.e. vaman, virechan, basti, nasya and rakta moksha. In literal terms these internal purification refer to vomiting, purgation, decoction enema, oily enema, and nasal medications.

Pitta - It is one of the three doshas i.e. the bile humor, entire hormones, enzymes, coenzymes and agencies responsible for the physiochemical processes of the body.

Prakruti - According to the Samkhya definition this means unconscious, inherent relationship between self and matter. In other words it means one's life consumption.

Prana - Literally meaning outgoing moving air, this is first of the five-vayu subdoshas and is responsible for respiratory functions and regulating inhalation.

Pranayama - It is a breathing exercise for purifying the blood and vitalizing the inner organs. The three aspects of this exercise are inhalation, retention and exhalation with the aim of increasing the span of each aspect and more controlled.

Pratyahara - It is the fifth stage of yoga and means withdrawal and liberation of mind from the sense sand the objects.

Prayatna - It is a Sanskrit word meaning effort. Effort of vata is light, rapid whereas pitta's effort is sharp, penetrating and skillful and kapha's effort is heavy, dull and sleepy.

Puraka - It is the inhalation aspect of pranayama i.e. the in breathing process.

Purgative - These are the herbs, natural substances that stimulate the bowel movement by eliminating the impurity from the lower part of the body.

Panir - A type of fresh cheese made by curdling milk.

Para-ojas - High quality or superior vital fluid located in the heart.

Pariksa - Examination, inspection or investigation.

Pasava - Animal type, belonging to cattle or animal family.

Pascata karma - Post action, therapies induced after the main action (therapy).

Peya - Rice gruel or any drink mixed with a small quantity of boiled rice.

Pichila - Slimy, lubricous, slippery, smeary.

Pippali - Long pepper, Latin name: Piper longum.

Pitta - Fire, bile, one of the three main biological energy in the body.

Prabhava - Effect, prominent, peculiar or special action of an herb.

Prajna - Wisdom, intelligence, knowledge.

Prajnaparadha - Not using intellect, offending the wisdom.

Prakopa - Vitiation, aggravation.


Rasa  - It is derived from the digested food and is circulated the entire body by channels. The main function of this first of the seven dhatus is to provide nutrition to all cells of the body and the plasma dhatu.

Rasayana - iterally means rejuvenation i.e. the therapy that rejuvenates or regenerates body- mind, prevents decay and postpones aging.

Rechaka - It refers tot he exhalation aspect of pranayama, the out breath.

Rasa-vaha srotas - Channels carrying plasma or lymph.

Rasi - Quantity, a measure for quantity, a heap, a pile, mass.

Ratricarya - Routine to be followed in night or evening, night regime.

Ritucarya - Seasonal regimes, routine to be followed in various seasons.

Ruksa - Dry, arid, not greasy, emaciated, thin.

Rupa - Sign, symptoms, mark (of diseases).


Sadhaka  - Located in the heart and responsible for intelligence, knowledge, memory, enthusiasm and consciousness by maintaining rhythmic contraction sadhaka is one of the five-pitta subdoshas.

Samadhi - It is the stage of self realization where harmony, calmness, concentration, awareness and mastery over mind, desires and body is achieved.

Samana vayu - It means equalized movement of air. Located in the stomach and the duodenum this type of vata subtypes has the function of digestion of food materials, separation of waste products, regulation of composition of body fluids, body temperature and the movement of pitta and kapha.

Samkhya - This word means both "discriminative knowledge" and "enumeration". It is one of the schools of Hindu philosophy founded by Kapila that gives a systematic account of cosmic evolution according to twenty-five categories, namely:

Samskara - The impression left in ones mind followed by any experience, imprints or some incident of the past consciously or unconsciously leaves samskara. It represents the root impressions derived from past experiences maybe of recent past or distant past.

Sandhaniya - It means to join. There are natural herbs that helps the body in healing of broken bones and torn ligaments and in uniting fractured and divided body parts.

Sarasvati - In Hindu mythology she is regarded as the goddess of speech and learning and is represented as the wife of Brahma.

Sat-Chid-Ananda - It means existence, reality, pure consciousness, the spirit, brahman, a being, bliss and delight.

Sattva - It means purity. First of the three gunas, it is the purest aspect and the sentient principle characterized by purity, luminosity, lightness, harmony and the production of pleasure.

Sattvic - It refers to the qualities that are pure, realistic and have the clarity of perception , which is responsible for goodness and happiness.

Shakha - It is a Sanskrit word meaning extremity.

Shirah - In Sanskrit it means head.

Shleshaka - Located in the body joints of the body, it is the fifth subtype of kapha, is viscous and oily and has the function to protect the bony joints by keeping them firm and united. It also helps in keeping the bones' function smooth.

Shodan - It refers to the cleansing methods. There are basically five cleansing methods, namely:
Vaman or therapeutic vomiting or emesis
Virechan or purgation
Basti or enema
Nasya or elimination of toxins through the nose
Raktamoksha or detoxification of the blood

Shukra - It is the last of the seven dhatus, the semen or the male reproductive tissue and has the major functions of producing sensation of ejaculation, fondness and strengthens the body.

Skandhas - It is a Sanskrit word meaning a heap, pile or aggregate. They are important tools for understanding the Buddhist doctrine of no self as they include with them all transitory, impermanent phenomena. The Five Skandhas as they are found in the body are as follows:
Body form Feelings of enjoyment and pleasure. Cognition of how to get what you want? How to actually indulge in pleasure? Formations Consciousness

Smrti - It is a Sanskrit word meaning the memory

Srotas - Literally means the source. It is a canal for nutrition in the body. All the dhatus have their own minute channels or srotas made up of extremely fine pores, originating from the heart cavity, and spreading throughout the body; they transport the nutrient fluid to all parts of the body for nourishment and growth.

Sukha - It is a Sanskrit word meaning happiness. Vata persons' experience of sukha is boring as in vata, sukha is superficial, physical, and shaky. Pitta sukha involves solving problems, understanding, and solving puzzles whereas Kapha sukha is passive, involving napping, eating or sitting.

Surya - It means the sun.

Sushumna Nadi - Nadi is the subtle energy field or channel by which the movements and configurations of sentient beings are controlled. Sushumna nadi starts from the first chakra and extends up to the crown chakra.

Sabda - Sound, tone, voice.

Sada - Six.

Sadavidha - Six types.

Sadhaka (Pitta) - Energizing, effective, accomplishing, one of the five types of pitta.

Sakuna - Relating to birds, having the nature of a bird, bird catcher.

Salakya tantra -
Science using probes or cylindrical sticks for investigation and treatments, branch dealing with eyes, ears, nose and throat.

Salya tantra - Splinter (extraction) science, surgery.

Samanyaja - A result (disease) caused my many factors (two or all three dosas).

Samhita - Methodically arranged collection of verses, texts.

Samprapt - Pathogenesis, the complete route of manifestation of disease.

Samsarjana (karma) - Diets and activities practiced after a treatment to get back to normal routine and food.

Samyaka - Accurate, proper, correct.

Samyoga - Combination, connection, conjunction.

Sancaya - Accumulation, collection, gathering.

Sandra - Dense, thick, solid, compact.

Sankhapuspi - An herb used as a tonic for nervous system: Latin Name: Convolvulus pluricaulis.

Sanskrit - Purified, sanctified, the language used in Vedic age.

Sapta-dhatu - The seven constitutional elements or tissues of the body.

Sara - Liquid, fluid, moving, wandering.

Sarira - Body, physical body.

Sarpa - Snake, serpent.

Sarpagandha - Name of an herb used for lowering high blood pressure- Latin name: Rouwolfia serpentina.

Sarvangasana - A yoga posture.

Sastriya - According to original texts (Sastra), confirmable to sacred precepts.

Savasana - Dead body posture of Yoga.

Silajita - A black sticky mineral that leaks out of some mountains, black bitumen.

Sira - Any tubular vessel in the body - a vein, nerve or artery.

Sira - The head, skull.

Sirodhara - Pouring oil or any other liquid on forehead from a special pot.

Sirsasana - Head stand posture of Yoga.

Sita - Cold, chilly, frigid.

Slakshana - Smooth, polished, soft, tender, gentle.

Slesaka - Attaching, connecting.

Snehana -Lubricating, anointing, rubbing with oil, unction.

Snigdha - Sticky, viscid, unctuous, smooth, adhesive.

Sodhana - Cleaning, purifying, refining.

Sparsa - Touching, sense of touch.

Sringa - Horn.

Srvanam - The act of hearing, acquiring knowledge by hearing, transportation, carrying.

Sthana samsraya - Location in a place, relocation of dosas.

Sthira - Firm, hard, solid, compact, strong, immovable, fixed.

Sthula - Large, thick, big, gross, massive, stout.


Takra  - Buttermilk, a drink made by mixing water in yogurt and churning it

Tamaka svasa - A kind of asthma.

Tiksagni - Strong digestive fire, increased activity of digestive fire.

Tiksna - Sharp, hot, fiery, pungent.

Tikta - Bitter taste or flavor.

Tridosa - The three dosas.

Tridoshic - Relating to tridoshas (see tridosha above).

Triguna - The three qualities of Nature.

Triphala - An Ayurvedic recipe made by mixing equal quantities of fruits of three particular herbs.

Trivrita - An herb (Indian jalap) used for purgation, Latin name: Operculina turpethum.

Tulasi - Holy Basil. Latin Name: Ocimum sanctum.

Tamas - It refers to the darkness, inertia, heaviness and the materialistic attitude.

Tanmatra - It is the subtle essence of the five elements in the body i.e. sound, touch, sight, taste and smell.

Tantra - It is a non vedic form of yoga leading divine ecstasy through certain rites that emphasize the erotic and forbidden. It is also known as kundalini-yoga it is Centered on the divine female power; rule, ritual, scripture, religious treatise, loom, warp.

Tarpaka - Located in the head it is one of the five subtypes of kapha having to itself the functions to nourish the sensory organs and help the brain and the five sensory organs to perform their function in the body.

Tejas - Having the characteristics of light, illumination and brilliance it is the superfine essence of pitta, one of the five elements, fire.

Tri-dosha - It refers to the combination of three humors, morbid substances i.e. the vata, pitta and kapha. The human body is a combination of these three essential factors and these three doshas are responsible for maintaining the integrity of human body and for governing the physical structure and functions of the living beings

Trikatu - It refers to the three pungents i.e. the sunthi or dry ginger, pippali or indian long pepper and maricha or black pepper

Trishna - It means thirst


Udaka-vaha srotas - Channels transporting water or watery liquids in the body

Upa-dhatu - Not a main tissue, a secondary tissue that supports the main tissue

Upasaya - The allaying (of disease) by suitable remedies, advantageous medicine, diagnosis by the effect of medicines or food items

Upastambha - Supporting pillars, sub- pillars

Upyoga-samstha - using method, user manual, and instructions to use or practice a technique

Upyokta - User

Usna - Hot, warm, passionate, sharp.

Uttanapadasana - A form of Yoga